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IoT based project using Raspberry Pi Automatic Self Irrigation System

 IoT based project using Raspberry Pi Automatic Self Irrigation System

IoT based project using Raspberry Pi Automatic Self Irrigation System
IoT based project using Raspberry Pi Automatic Self Irrigation System


This project mainly focuses on implementing an automatic self-irrigation system in irrigation Fields and vertical gardens. In order to replace manual activities and facilitate work, We will make a modified plant watering structure. It will enable all of our plants to have Realize their maximum potential similar to water conservation. Using sprinklers, spillage Or a combination of both, we can structure a perfect system for each yard manufacturer. To implement the programmed plant watering frame, we will use a mixture of sprinklers Frames, canals and fountains. This pledge uses the Raspberry Pi 3 B model. It will be adjusted to detect moisture dimensions of plants at a specific time. In the In the event that the moisture content of the predetermined breaking point is not precisely determined According to the plant's explicit water needs, the required proportion of water is given until then Edge gets done. The frame will be designated to irrigate the plants twice every day.

The tire will be planned to report on its tidal condition exactly as stated Customer to add water to the tank. These warnings can be made through the mobile app or Any site


This framework will be planned and customized so that the soil moisture sensor detects the moisture level of the plant on a given occasion Time, if the humidity level in the sensor is not exactly the pre-set limit degree as indicated by the factory specific need, at that point the ideal level is Amount of water is supplied until it reaches the pre-set tip rating. This project is not limited to agricultural fields only, but also includes large areas Applications in the concept of vertical garden as well. This automatic self-irrigation system mainly works on IoT idea The Raspberry Pi 3 B model is used to power the system and uses a microcontroller to convert the analog reading into digital readings.

 Internet of Things (IoT)

Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of tools, appliances, etc. that contain hardware, programming and availability that These things enable data to be linked, collaborated, and shared. This includes providing previous standard web tools, for example, work areas, Workstations, phones and tablets, to any range of physical gadgets and regular items that do not typically support the web. These tools Cultivated with innovation, it can be moved and linked online, moreover, it can be scanned and controlled remotely. 

The Internet of things Alternatives are part of a larger home computing thinking, which can combine lighting, heating and cooling frameworks, media and security.

Favorable conditions for the entire deal could join the reserves of necessities by ensuring lights and equipment are slaughtered.

The use of the Internet of things in the field of agriculture

There are various applications of the Internet of Things in agriculture, for example, gathering information about temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, and Soil content. This information can be used to automate farming systems and make informed choices to improve quality, quantity and limitation Risks and waste, and reduced effort required to supervise crops. For example, check soil temperature and moisture from a distance, then apply them Information purchased from IoT for Micro setup programs.

There are many examples of the Internet of Things being used in practice, one of them is explained below:

In August 2018, Toyota Tsusho started an organization with Microsoft to manufacture fish farming devices using the Microsoft Azure app Suite for IoT developments identified with Water Panel, and to some extent created by analysts from Kindai University, Water Siphon

The systems used man-made brainpower to calculate the amount of fish on the transmission line and quantify the amount of fish and over the long term The reason for the usefulness of the water flow is the information provided by the fish.

The special computer projects used in the process fall into the Azure Machine Learning and Azure IoT Hub phases.

The different networks used to work with the Internet of Things:

IoT deals with a huge amount of data in daily life and dealing with the high scalability of data is the main factor for management Data received from billions of devices, the IPv6 network architecture will prove to be a boon for handling the much-demanding network-layer scalability

Scalability. To enable lightweight data transmission, the IETF restricted application protocol will provide a great platform. Fog computing is a A feasible way to deal with a massive surge of data.

Various communication methods

 Wireless connection for short range devices:

o Bluetooth mesh networks - specification that provides a variant of the mesh to Bluetooth Low Energy with an increase in the number Nodes and standard application layer.

Light-Fidelity - Wireless communication technology similar to the Wi-Fi standard, but using visible light connectivity to augment it Band width.

o Near Field Communication - communication protocols that enable two electronic devices to communicate within a 4 cm range.

o QR Codes and Barcodes - Visual machine-readable markers that contain information about the product it has been attached to.

o Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - It is a technology that uses electromagnetic fields to read data stored in tags embedded in Other things.

o Transport Layer Security - Network Security Protocol.

o Wi-Fi - A local area network technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, in which devices can communicate over a shared network An access point or directly between individual devices.

o ZigBee - is a communication protocol for personal area networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Provides low power Consumption, low data rate, low cost and high throughput.

Mid-range wireless

LTE-Advanced - is a high-speed connection specification for mobile networks. Provides improvements to LTE standard With extended coverage, more productivity and less latency.

 Long range wireless

Low-Controlled Wide Area Networks - Remote frameworks are proposed to allow for long-term messaging at an ill-considered rate, Certainly reduce energy and transportation cost. Available technologies and protocols are: LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless.


o Ethernet - A widely useful system management standard that uses twisted pair connections and fiber optics alongside hubs or Keys.

Power Line Communications (PLC) - It is a communication technology that uses electrical wires to transmit power and data. For example:

HomePlug uses PLC for networking of IoT devices.

What is a Raspberry Pi?

The Raspberry Pi is a compact, lightweight and impressive computer that does a large number of things like a work area computer.

The main points that make it ideal for visual and audio applications are, for example, media focus and limited broadcast arrangements Amazing design capabilities and HDMI video return. Raspberry Pi is primarily built on the Broadcom BCM2835 chip. Do not rule out Inherent hardboard or rugged drive, alternatively has SD card for bootable and long distance storage.

Most of the Raspberry pi board have USB ports, HDMI port, DSI port, audio jack, 40-pin GPIO, built-in bluetooth, WIFI, etc.

Raspberry Pi has its own framework. Raspbian, Ubuntu mate, smart Ubuntu, etc.are the different frameworks used in Raspberry pie. Raspberry pi works with various programming dialects such as C ++, Python, SQL, and HTSQL. Uses C ++ for programming Arduino. HTSQL (Hyper Text Structured Query Language) to give a database web interface that is difficult to query through Internet browser. It also supports java, java content, php, etc.

The Raspberry Pi's main power modes are as follows:

1. Operating Mode - The CPU and all benefits of ARM11 can be accessed and controlled.

2. Standby mode - the main center timers have been switched off, despite the fact that the power circuits in the center remain dynamic. The reduction mode is called the "W ait for Interrupt" (WFI) mode. The drawback is a procedure that creates an uncommon call to the CPU To quickly wake up the center. Any preparation present will be stopped due to this hindrance and do what the summons procedure requires.

3. Shutdown mode - no power.

4. Sleep Mode - The position is closed and all reserves are controlled.

GPIO pins

The term GPIO is defined as "general purpose I / O." While most sticks have a committed reason, for example, sending a file Indicate a specific part, GPIO is a kind of stick in a coordinated circuit that has no specific capacitance, capacitance The GPIO stick is adaptive and can be restricted by programming. Raspberry Pi uses GPIO pins. The different functions of GPIO pins are highlighted below:

It give the interface between the Raspberry Pi and different segments and it incorporates a line of GPIO sticks along the edge of the board that. These pins go about as switches, it gives yield 3.3 volts when set to HIGH and zero voltage when set to LOW. We can interface a gadget to explicit GPIO pins to control it with a product program. For instance, if a product program advises the GPIO stick to turn on, the LED will illuminate by wiring a LED to a GPIO and a ground stick on a Raspberry Pi. GPIOs are utilized in an assorted assortment of utilizations, restricted just by the electrical and timing details of the GPIO interface and the capacity of programming to communicate with GPIOs in an adequately convenient way. GPIOs ordinarily utilize standard rationale levels and can't supply critical current to yield loads. At the point when pursued by a fitting high-current yield cushion (or mechanical or strong state hand-off), a GPIO might be utilized to control high-control gadgets, for example, lights, solenoids, warmers, and engines (e.g., fans and blowers). So also, an info cradle, transfer or opto-isolator is regularly used to interpret a generally contrary flag (e.g., high voltage) to the rationale levels required by a GPIO. Incorporated circuit GPIOs are regularly used to control or screen other hardware (counting different ICs) on a board. Instances of this incorporate empowering and crippling the task of (or capacity to) other hardware, perusing the conditions of on-board switches and setup shunts, and driving Drove status pointers. In the last case, a GPIO can, as a rule, supply enough yield current to legitimately control a Drove without utilizing a moderate support. Numerous GPIOs are once in a while utilized together as a bit-slammed correspondence interface. For instance, two GPIOs might be utilized to execute a sequential correspondence transport, for example, I²C, and four GPIOs can be utilized to actualize a SPI transport; these are regularly used to encourage sequential correspondence with ICs and different gadgets which have perfect sequential interfaces, for example, sensors (e.g., temperature sensors, weight sensors, accelerometers) and engine controllers. Taken to the outrageous, this strategy might be utilized to execute a whole parallel transport, along these lines permitting correspondence with transport arranged ICs or circuit sheets

Soil moisture sensors are utilized to gauge the volumetric water content in soil , the soil moisture sensors measure the volumetric water content by implication by utilizing some other property of the soil, for example, electrical opposition, dielectric consistent, as an intermediary for the moisture content as the direct gravimetric estimation of free soil moisture requires expelling, drying, and weighting of an example. The connection among the deliberate property and soil moisture must be adjusted and it might change contingent upon natural factors, for example, soil type, temperature, or electric conductivity. Ranchers or cultivators can utilize versatile test instruments. Soil moisture sensor is chiefly characterized as the sensor that gauges the volumetric water content. Another kind of sensors measure distinctive property of moisture in soils called water potential; these sensors are generally incorporate densitometers and gypsum squares and are alluded to as soil water potential sensors. 2.Connectivity technologies and interaction amongst various internet of things (I0T) devices The main objective of the Internet of Things is the automatic exchange of useful data among two or more devices without manually operating the device. Various communication methods using advanced technologies are used to exchange information between these devices, some of these technologies are defined below: 

Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN):

 The Wireless Sensor Network are defined as the composition of various nodes independent in nature in which communication takes place in wireless mode over a limited bandwidth and frequency. The different parts of the nodes used for communicating through WSN are given below:

 i. Sensor 
ii. Microcontroller 
iii. Memory 
iv. Radio Transceiver 
v. Battery 

Multi-jump hand-off of information occur between the source and the base station on account of the compelled correspondence extent of each sensor center of a WSN. The data is assembled by the sensors with the help of facilitated exertion made among the different center points, which is then sent to the sink center point for composed coordinating towards the base station. The data transmission process between the center points occurs with the help of remote radio handsets molded by the correspondence sort out.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

 The following correspondence innovation utilized in the area of the Internet of Things (IOT) is RFID innovation. It is intended to make connection of data labels with one another simpler. The radio frequencies are utilized by the RFID labels for trade of helpful data among each other with no physical restictions, for example, arrangement in a similar viewable pathway or physical contact. It utilizes the remote innovation of Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).The two main components of RFID technology are given below:

 RFID tags mainly known as Transponders:

 A RFID tag consists of an antenna which is attached in a microchip by embedding method. They also contain memory units which consists of a unique identifier known as (EPC). The main function of Electronic Product Code is to provide a universal numerical data in each tag which helps in recognizing a particular tag universally.

 There are mainly two types of RFID tags which are defined below:

 i. Active tag:

 The active tags consists of an internal battery which helps in the interaction of its unique Electronic Product Code with the neighboring surrounded Electronic Product Code remotely from a limited distance.

 ii. Passive tag: The passive tags does not contain any internal battery. It substitutes the lack of internal battery by utilizing the electromagnetic signal emitted by a tag reader through inductive coupling as a source of energy. The information relay of the tag’s Electronic Product Code occurs only by its activation by a transceiver from a pre-defined range of the tag.

 RFID readers mainly known as Transceivers: 

The main function of a RFID reader is to work as identification detector of each and every tag with the help of interaction with the Electronic Product Code of the tag which is currently under its scan.

 Reasons for need of security in IOT

 Many security and privacy issues are present in the Internet of Things technology based on the various above-mentioned security flaws. Some of them are listed below:

 i. Sensitive information like bank passwords are at high risk. 

ii. Personal details like contact number, address, etc. ate easily available.

iii. Open access to private and highly confidential information. 

iv. Interconnectivity leads to a huge risk to the entire network of devices as if one device is found under attack it can make all the other connected devices vulnerable to security attack this leading to compromise its integrity. 

v. The working of IOT mainly relies on the internet which makes it vulnerable to various virus attacks and worm attacks and all security drawbacks which are related to an internet dependent computing device. 

Security Measures 

 Secure booting: The realness and trustworthiness of the item on the device is confirmed using cryptographically made computerized marks when power is first acquainted with the gadget similarly as when an individual signs an authoritative record, an advanced picture is joined with a computerized signature and afterward checked by the gadget which ensures that solitary the approved programming to continue running on that device, and set apart by the substance that endorsed it, will be stacked. The trust commendable establishment has been built up, even subsequent to giving computerized signature the gadget must be shielded from malevolent expectations and run time dangers. 

 Access control: Different sort of access control and asset control are connected. The gadget parts and applications have worked in compulsory or job based access controls in the working framework which restricts the benefits so they get to just the assets which are obligatory to finish their activity. Access control dependably ensures that the gatecrasher has the insignificant access to different pieces of the framework if on the off chance that any part is undermined this makes the working a lot more secure in nature. Gadget based access control instruments are practically equivalent to arrange based access control frameworks, regardless of whether somebody figured out how to take corporate qualifications to access a system, traded off data would be restricted to just those zones of the system approved by those specific accreditations. The guideline of least benefit is characterized as the base access required to play out a capacity is given to limit the impacts of rupture of security. 


The main advantages of Arduino are as follows: 

Very easy to use. 

 Can be used for real-time applications for hardware, software and IDE is open source. 

No need of advanced programming knowledge for basic working. 

Easy to extend and includes various user contributed shields and libraries. The main limitations of Arduino are as follows:

 Less powerful than Raspberry Pi. 

Can be programmed only by using either Arduino or C/C++. 

Internet connectivity is slightly difficult, but not impossible. 

 Arduino based systems arenot efficient at multitasking. 

Watering vertical gardens without wastage and leakage. 

Proposed work 

 This automatic self watering system senses the moisture content of the soil with the help of soil moisture sensors. 

 The desired amount of water is transmitted depending on the threshold value set with the help of water pump. 

 This mechanism helps the plants and crops to grow at their maximum potential and thus helps in saving the land reserved water. 

 This system can be further programmed to work with different variety of crops and their individual water requirements. 

 This system is can work efficiently for large scale vertical gardens 


Fig: 7.1 flow chart of automatic self watering system
Fig: 7.1 flow chart of automatic self watering system 

Fig 7.2 : connections in automatic self watering system
Fig 7.2 : connections in automatic self watering system 


The best way to predict the future is to create it and for a better future advancement in technology and security is mandatory. Thus, through this paper we have studied about automatic self-watering system and security in Internet of things and various flaws in the technologies used in the IOT, which may prove to be unfavorable in its implementation. In order to develop better irrigation techniques and advancement in self watering of vertical gardens we need to focus on use of various types of sensors and wireless methods to implement the system which will lead to an efficient functioning of the automatic self-watering system. By concluding we would like to suggest that for an advanced, safe and secure world ahead we should pay more attention towards a technology’s development. 


 I would like to offer my true thanks to my mentor Prof. Madhu kirola, Dept. Of Computer Science, Uttaranchal University, for the continuous help on my research, for her understanding, inspiration, and tremendous learning. Her direction helped me in all the season of research and composing of this paper. I thank everyone for their assistance straightforwardly and in a roundabout way to help me complete this research.